Centenary of the Basilians in Canada
Meletius Solovey, OSBM
translated and adapted by Roman Kravec
Two and a half generations, one hundred years—a long time by most measures—have elapsed since the arrival in Canada of the first Ukrainian Catholic priests and nuns whose intention was to make their home here. The priests were members of the Basilian Order of St. Josaphat: Platonides Filas, Sozontius Dydyk, Anton Strotsky; and laybrother Jeremiah Yanishevsky. Four members of the Ukrainian Sisters Servants of Mary Immaculate arrived with them in Edmonton or rather, Strathcona, on October 31, 1902: Ambrosia Lenkevych, Isidora Shpytkovska, Taïda Vrublevska and Emilia Klapoushok. Father Basil Zholdak, a secular priest, also arrived with them; he had been in Canada earlier, and after reporting to Metropolitan Sheptytsky, returned and stayed in Winnipeg. Two other Basilians arrived in Winnipeg November 15, 1903: Naukratius Kryzhanovsky and Matthew Hura. Another two arrived January 13, 1905: Athanasius Fylypiv and Ivan Tymochko.
Who are the Basilians?
Before we delve into the details of daily living of the missionaries, let us reflect on the origins of the Ukrainian Basilian Fathers. Monasticism arrived in Ukraine along with Christianity. Traditionally, 988 is accepted as the year of official acceptance of Christianity by the ruler of the Kievan State, St. Volodymyr. The earliest missionaries were probably Bulgarians. The Church Slavonic language used in the Ukrainian church is also known as Old Slavonic, or Old Bulgarian. Greece then lay claim to the evangelisation of Ukraine, and Greeks wrote the earliest chronicles. Today, in Ukraine, our church goes by the name Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church.
All monasteries in the Byzantine churches trace their origin to the monasticism of St. Basil the Great, a Greek speaking educated man living in what is now Turkey. Wanting to follow a life closely patterned on that of Jesus, he persuaded other hermits in the desert to live together. Otherwise, how could they practice the law of "love of neighbour"? In his writings, he defended the divinity of the Holy Spirit, but died in 379, two years before the Council of Constantinople adopted his formulation in the revision of the Nicene Creed. One hundred years later, St. Benedict adopted St. Basil's style of monasticism in the West.
Work began immediately. Father Filas took Beaverlake and area (near Mundare); Father Dydyk—Rabbit Hill (near Edmonton), and Father Strotsky—Star (north of Lamont). Everything needed for liturgical celebrations was taken along, since services were held in people's homes. The priests would often hear confessions for hours, then celebrate the Divine Liturgy, baptize children, marry couples, visit the sick, bless land in preparation for the building of chapels, churches, or cemeteries. They would bless homes, icons, teach catechism to the children and older folk; they would give longer and shorter missions (series of spiritual talks), visit the farmers, solve problems, and try to bring back to the Church those lured away by Protestants and Russian tsar-supported Orthodox priests.
Father Platonides Filas (1864-1930) was a real blessing for the early mission. Although he worked in Canada only three years (1902-1905) his example was an inspiration for a new generation of Basilians that grew up in Canada.
On foot, by ox or horse, he would visit his people, who were often still living in dugouts. This was hard work that required much self-denial, but Father Filas was up to the challenge. He performed his duties with love and enthusiasm. With the help of good people, in a few months he had built the first chapel on the Basilian Fathers' farm. He was especially persistent in persuading people to return to their ancestral faith who had been seduced by one particular flavour of "orthodoxy."
People loved him. They loved his kindness, his goodness. They loved his sermons and his piety. He often helped the poor, orphans or abandoned children and those who were otherwise helpless. He collected contributions for them, and actively galvanized his flock to a charity in action. In his short time in Canada he had gained such a popularity that some people proposed the town of Mundare be named after him.
In September 1904, word arrived that Father Filas had been elected Provincial Superior of the Basilians in Ukraine. In January 1905 he left behind his beloved Beaverlake, Mundare, his Canadian mission, and returned to the "old country". People were crying, but he consoled them that he would send more missionaries to work among them.
To have their own novitiate was a dream of the pioneer Basilians. The requirements of early pastoral work, however, did not allow time for the formation of new young members of the Basilian Order. This dream came about 20 years after their arrival in Canada—a considerable achievement.
The idea was first broached by Father Sozontius Dydyk OSBM at the All Canadian Catholic Conference held in Quebec City in 1909. There he declared that the success of the Ukrainian mission in Canada depended upon having "our own bishop, our own seminary or novitiate, and our own Catholic press."
Father Naukratius Kryzanowski OSBM (1876-1940) was the most enthusiastic propagator of a novitiate, but lack of money and resources did not allow him to accomplish his dream. This happened only after World War I. On June 28, 1921, permission was received from the Basilian superiors in Rome for the building of a novitiate home. The Basilian provincial superior in Ukraine, Father Anastasius Kalysh, then set out to visit Canada and the missions there.
In September of 1921, Metropolitan Sheptytsky visited Mundare and gave his support to the project. The plans of the monastery were drawn up by Father Philip Ruh, OMI, who was the main architect of this home, and many other Ukrainian churches in Canada, such as the Edmonton St. Josaphat's Cathedral. The Basilians sank every penny they had saved into the home, and took out loans totaling $22,000.
Blessing and dedication of the home took place on August 28, 1923, on the feast of the Dormition of the Blessed Virgin Mary (old calendar). A special pilgrimage feast day was declared, and many people came for the inauguration by the Superior of the Basilian Mission in Canada, Father Naukratius Kryzanowski. On August 31, the novitiate opened with a solemn Divine Liturgy and the official acceptance of the first five candidates.
Father Porfirius Bodnar was the first Master of Novices (1923-4) followed by Father Matthew Hura (1924-5). After his sickness and death in 1925, Father George Zhydan took over until 1927, followed by Father Sozontius Diakovych until 1931.
In the thirties, the number of candidates to monastic life had increased to the point that the Basilians began planning a separate home. It was built on the Basilian Fathers farm, 5 km from Mundare. This historic site, where the first chapel had been built in 1902, served as the Basilian residence until 1923. The first Master of novices in the newly built home was Father Basil Kamenecky.
Even this home needed expansion, which was done in 1935 and 1940. The new Master of Novices became Father Benjamin Baranyk. He presided over the largest number of novices (wartime religious fervour?). When Father Baranyk was chosen Provincial Superior, American-born Father Nicholas Kohut took over.
Here are the names of the Novice Masters, many of them well known, in the next period of the novitiate: Victor Soroka, Julian Katry, Meletius Solovey, Myron Daciuk (1953-1964), Severian Yakymyshyn (1964-1976). Father Yakymyshyn received permission to move the novitiate to the Basilian home in Ottawa. From 1976 on, candidates for the Canadian Basilians were sent to the novitiate in Glen Cove, Long Island, New York.
Statistics show that up to 1981, 402 candidates went through the novitiate in Mundare. Approximately 30% dedicated their lives to the service of God and the Ukrainian people, 90 as priests and 24 as lay-brothers.
In 1925, when the earliest graduates of the novitiate program needed to supplement their studies, the priests in Mundare took on the duties of teachers besides their other responsibilities. Philosophy and theology studies were pursued in Quebec, where the students stayed at French Catholic seminaries, supported entirely by the French bishops.
In 1930, with new priests arriving from Ukraine, philosophy studies were begun in Mundare, and in 1932, theology as well. The philosophy and theology studies were moved to Grimsby, Ontario in 1943 to a newly acquired monastery and fruit farm.
Briefly, the philosophy studies remained in Grimsby for one year, then were moved to Mundare (1944-5), Glen Cove, Long Island, N. Y. (1945-50), Dawson, PA (1950-1), Glen Cove (1951-3), Mundare (1953-8). From 1958 to 1961 Basilian students lived in the Ottawa Roman Catholic seminary, frequenting philosophy studies at the Oblate University (today’s St. Paul University).
In 1962, the Basilians bought the home of the former Apostolic Nuncio to Canada in Ottawa, and from this home Basilian students frequented the Universities of Ottawa, St. Paul’s, and Carleton until 1975.
Theology studies were held in Grimsby until 1947, then moved to Glen Cove until 1949. From then on, Canadian theology students were sent to Rome, although some completed their studies in Ottawa, especially in the years 1962-1974.
Along with their other studies, beginning in 1951 Basilian students who had completed their novitiate in Mundare but had not finished high school, were able to do so by correspondence. Father Soter Pidskalny, OSBM, a mathematical wizard, was an invaluable resource for them while running the farming operation until his retirement.
The First Canadian Province
Until the early 1920’s, missionary work in Canada rested on the shoulders of these five priests: Dydyk, Kryzanowski, Fylypiv, Hura, and Tymochko. With the untimely death of Father Tymochko in 1909 (he froze to death on a sleigh while returning from a mission), Father Basil Ladyka took over his duties. He was the first to finish his studies in Canada. From 1922 to 1931 ten priests and five laybrothers arrived in Canada from Western Ukraine. From 1923 the number of Basilians slowly grows; seven in 1922, 15 in 1925, 30 in 1927, and 49 in 1930.
In 1932, the Basilian mission in Canada became the “American-Canadian Province” of the Basilian Order with their own Provincial and Council. The first provincial was Father Naukratius Kryzanowski. Under his able leadership, the following priests arrived from Ukraine: Trukh, Markiw, Zhuravetsky, Baranyk, Senyshyn, Romanovych, and Savaryn.
The new forces allowed the Basilians to establish themselves in the USA for good, first in Chicago (1932), then in New York (1942). The biggest factor in this growth, however, is the increasing number of new priests who received their first monastic training in Mundare: Theodosius Dobko, ordained in 1932, was the first of these. This province continued its growth during the war, at a time when the Galician, Trans-Carpathian, Romanian and Hungarian provinces of the Basilians were decimated. Meanwhile, in 1945, there were 124 Basilians in the province (52 priests, 39 students and 33 lay-brothers).
PASTORAL WORK OF THE BASILIAN FATHERS
The creation of a Canadian-American Province of the Ukrainian Basilians in North America, and its subsequent division into two separate Provinces, was not so much the result of ecclesiastical decrees, as it was the fruit of organic growth of the Ukrainian Catholic Church. Of course, since our focus is the work of the Basilians, this is not to belittle or ignore the work of the secular clergy or the Redemptorists in the growth of our church in Canada.
Beaverlake — Mundare
After his arrival at the Strathcona end-of-the-line railway station on October 31, Father Filas set to work. November 7, he visited the Ukrainians in the area of Beaverlake—today’s Mundare. When in 1932 the Basilian mission was elevated to the status of a province, Mundare became the provincial home, and remained such until 1948.
The Mundare monastery became the centre of pastoral activity in the surrounding area. Many of the satellite parishes became large, then small again, and some have disappeared completely. Here is a partial list of these centres: Vegreville, Borschiw, Moskalyky, Krakiw, Chipman, Hilliard - town, Hilliard - farm, Warwick, Star, Skaro.
The first Basilians were greeted at the Strathcona railway station by the French Oblates Leduc and Jean. Father Sozontius Dydyk began serving the area, traveling to places like Rabbit Hill, Leduc, Round Hill, Round Lake. From 1903, his base of operation was Rabbit Hill, where a residence had been built for him. In the words of the chronicle written by Father Filas, “Rabbit Hill is the best of all the colonies (pastoral centres). Here the people care for the priest, listen to him and respect him.”
In Edmonton, Father Dydyk received much help from Bishop Legal, who helped him buy land and in 1904 build the first chapel, dedicated to Saint Josaphat, and a residence for priests. The chapel was expanded in 1913. It was Father Dydyk's dream to build a new church to commemorate the 950th anniversary of Christianity in Ukraine. This was in the year 1938. The building of a new church began in 1939, and, due to the second world war, wasn't completed until 1947. It was blessed that year by Cardinal Tisserant, a Frenchman who was Prefect of the Congregation for Oriental
Churches, the Vatican department responsible for the Ukrainian Catholic Church.
From 1929 to 1943, Father Dydyk worked in and out of Edmonton. He was, so to speak, the architect of Ukrainian religious and cultural activity which revolved around the church, the parish, the residence and the National Hall. When the Western Ukrainian Catholic Exarchate was created in 1948, St. Josaphat's became the new bishop's cathedral. The Basilian Fathers continued to serve in the parish until 1959, when they transferred the administration of the cathedral to secular clergy, and concentrated their efforts in south Edmonton.
Saint Basil's parish on the southern side of the North Saskatchewan river that flows through Edmonton is one of the biggest parishes in Canada. In 1902, when the first Basilians arrived, this was Strathcona, the terminus of the Canadian Pacific Railway. In 1913, under the direction of Father Matthew Hura, OSBM, Ukrainian Catholics formed the Ukrainian Greek-Catholic Association of Taras Shevchenko, and even had their own meeting place. The actual genesis of a parish can be traced to the establishment of institutes for students at the University of Alberta. In 1949, an institute for boys was established— St. Basil's, and in 1946, St. Josaphat's for girls.
The Basilian Fathers bought the old Saint Anthony's church from the Roman Catholic diocese and in 1947, began regular services for people living on the "south side" and sfor tudents of the university. July 6, 1948 was the date of the canonical erection of a new parish of Saint Basil the Great. The first directors of the student Institutes were Fathers Sebastian Kurylo and Lawrence Dzygolyk (died in 1948). The first pastor of the new Saint Basil's parish was Father Athanasius Chimy (died in Rome in 1961). The parish moved to its present location at 109th Street and 70th Avenue in 1967. Since the area used to be a slough, there is no basement under the church, and the parish hall is a separate building, known as St. Basil's Cultural Centre.
The Basilian Fathers also serve churches in Leduc, Calmar and Thorsby, as well as looking after St. Basil's Summer Camp at Pigeon Lake since 1950, which lately has served as the residence for the pastor of these parishes.
For a long time, Winnipeg was the "capital" of Ukrainian immigrants to Canada. The first religious and cultural organizations were founded here; here the Basilians laid the foundation for Saint Nicholas parish and the present Provincial Office (responsible for all Ukrainian Basilians in Canada). Saint Nicholas parish has had a rich, and even dramatic, history. The first Basilian priest in the city was Damaskyn Polywka, who arrived in 1899 with the blessing of the Apostolic See. Although he moved to the United States, he continued to encourage the parishioners, by letter, to organize and build a church. This was done in the summer of 1901. Various priests served the parish until Father Matthew Hura OSBM became the pastor in 1904. The first church became too small almost immediately, since it held barely 60 people. A bigger church was built with help from Archbishop Langevin of St. Boniface - Winnipeg. The was the first larger church that Ukrainians built in Canada. The first service took place on the parish feast day, December 19, 1904. The solemn blessing of the new church, performed by the superior of the Basilian mission in Canada, Father Platonides Filas, in the presence of Archbishop Langevin, OMI, on January 15, 1905, attracted more than 1,500 people.
On December 22, 1912, this church was witness to the installation of the first Ukrainian Catholic bishop in Canada, Nicetas Budka, who subsequently died in a Soviet concentration camp, and was beatified by Pope John Paul II
on June 29, 2001. With the arrival of the bishop, life for the Basilians became easier, since more diocesan priests began arriving to help. Until 1912, there had been five Basilians working in Canada, four Redemptorists, and only two diocesan priests. Subsequently, the parish acquired land farther north in Winnipeg, and built a new church in 1966. One of the priests at the parish residence serves as pastor of St. Basil's church in Winnipeg.
Pastoral Work in Eastern Canada
Basilians arrived here in 1932 to serve in St. Michael the Archangel parish. The parish had been founded in 1911, but had fallen into debt, and a rescue operation was needed. Father Josaphat Tymochko became the first Basilian pastor, with Father Josaphat Jean, of French-Canadian origin, as his assistant. By 1944, with debts paid, fundraising began for a new church. This was built after the Basilians had left the parish in 1952. They were also instrumental in the founding of three other parishes in the Montreal area.
This small town in the Niagara peninsula of Ontario boasts a church built by Father Philip Ruh, OMI, architect of many Ukrainian churches in Canada, most notably, St. Josaphat cathedral in Edmonton. The Basilians were looking for a place for their students, since the Mundare homes were overflowing. They
found a fruit farm in this town and purchased it in 1942. After the necessary adaptations, philosophy and theology students arrived in 1943. The first community was comprised of three priests, 15 "scholastics" and six lay-brothers. In 1947, theology students were moved to Glen Cove, Long Island, NY to make room for the humanities students from Mundare. These were also eventually moved to Glen Cove, because the Grimsby facilities were just too small. The parish, which the Basilians took over in 1942, was eventually
given back to the bishop, and the monastery continues as an "ad hoc" seniors' home.
Basilians arrived in Toronto in 1949, when the printing press and was moved from Mundare, about which see below. The first priests were Volodymyr Shewchuk and Bernard Dribnenky, who at first were involved with the printing press and editing a monthly magazine exclusively, but eventually, at the request of the local bishop, began pastoral work of a more direct kind. Father Bernard Dribnenky organized the parish of St. Basil the Great, which eventually became the seed from which sprang the St. Basil the Great College and St. Volodymyr parish in Thornhill.
St Basil the Great College was a high school built in 1962 on the grounds of a large parcel of land in Weston, most of which could not be developed because it was a flood plain. Originally intended as a boarding school for boys, it soon became a local high school, never fully developing its potential for exclusive service to the Ukrainian Catholic Church. As part of the local Catholic school board, it was eventually closed as being too small to operate economically.
St. Volodymyr parish in the suburb of Thornhill took over the unused Roman Catholic church of St. Luke along with adjoining cemetery, and began providing a home to almost 200 parishioners who had moved away from the downtown parish of St. Basil. Father Volodymyr Shewchuk began services in 1972. When a priest wasn't living on site, the priests from the monastery next to St. Basil's College would provide pastoral services.
The capital of Canada has a parish, St. John the Baptist, that today boasts a stylish church on the banks of the Rideau Canal. Basilians provided temporary pastors from 1938 to 1948. A permanent arrangement was reached in 1958 after the Basilians relinquished their parishes in Montreal. Ottawa was not a stranger to Basilians because of the excellent University owned by the Oblates of Mary Immaculate. Basilian students lived at the seminary adjacent to the philosophy department of the University, and eventually purchased the former home of the Apostolic Delegate to Canada of the Holy See, a solid building reputed to have been built by Colonel Bytown, founder of what became known as Ottawa. The building is no more, but the legacy perhaps lives on in the new church, and the Ukrainian Catholic Seminary of the Holy Spirit.
Pastoral Work in British Columbia
Ukrainian workers, radicals, no doubt, founded the first society in Vancouver in 1907 under the name "Borot'ba" (The Struggle). Early efforts to organize a church can be traced to 1910 and 1911 when Fathers. Kryzhanowski and Dydyk visited the area. It was only in the thirties that the secular priests Ulyanytsky and Bala were able to lay the foundation for the parish of St. Stephen. In 1936, Father Bartman tried again. In 1937, seeking a permanent solution, Bishop Ladyka asked the Basilian Fathers to make it a priority. Father Sebastian Shewchuk became the first Basilian pastor in Vancouver.
Among the many organizations that flourished, special mention must be made of the church choir, organized by Father Theodosius Dobko, and subsequently ably led by Father Boniface Sloboda, pastor from 1949. The choir had over a hundred members and gained quite a reputation. In 1944, St. Stephen's parish bought a new building and changed the name of the parish to Protection of the Blessed Virgin Mary. A new parcel of land was bought in 1962, two blocks from city hall, and today, a beautiful church stands there, surrounded by a senior's residence, a hall and a gymnasium.
Father Jerome Chimy, OSBM became the first bishop of the newly formed eparchy of New Westminster. He chose as his cathedral Holy Eucharist parish, where the first Divine Liturgy was celebrated in 1943 by Father George Zhydan, OSBM.
OTHER ASPECTS OF THE BASILIAN APOSTOLATE
The difficulties that the early Basilians encountered are not significantly different from today's difficulties. All stem from the same secularistic and anti-church society. Then as now, Basilian priests and laybrothers are working to further the kingdom of God as Jesus requested.
Missions and Retreats
After the Papal reform of 1882, the Basilians became known as missioners. They were all good preachers and used their skills to preach missions, retreats, and spiritual exercises. This was especially true of the first Basilians in Canada: Fathers Dydyk, Kryzhanowski, Hura, Fylypiw, Ivan-Damaskyn Tymochko, and Ladyka. We have no statistics on their early efforts, but we do know that their efforts were multiplied after World War I due to the arrival of Fathers Bodnar and Teodorovych, Josaphat Tymochko, Zhydan, and Diakovych. They preached to parishes, to youth groups, to monks and nuns; they led parish renewal missions and Lenten missions. The early priests inspired the new generation of Canadian and American born priests to follow in their footsteps.
The first "Apostleship of Prayer" society was founded, it seems, in Beaverlake (Mundare) December 22, 1905. These became so popular that two congresses of the societies were held, in Winnipeg in 1944 and in Edmonton in 1948. In 1905 Father Hura started the "St. Nicholas Brotherhood" in Winnipeg. Father Fylypiw organized the "Brotherhood of St. John the Merciful"
in 1911. In Mundare, Father Ivan Tymochko founded the "Society of St. Barbara." In Edmonton, Father Dydyk organized the "Ukrainian Catholic Union" and "Brotherhood of St. Nicholas" in 1917. Fr Ladyka gave rise to the "Brotherhood of Mercy of St. Josaphat" in 1918 and the "Eucharistic Union" in 1926. In the 1920's, Basilians founded "Societies of Mary," "Children of Mary" for girls, and "Altar Societies" for boys. They had no small part to play in th eventual founding of the "Brotherhood of Ukrainian Catholics" part of which split off to become the "Ukrainian Catholic Women's League," and, eventually, "Ukrainian Catholic Youth".
In the area of Ukrainian cultural and national affairs, Father Matthew Hura founded the "Prosvita Reading Society" in Winnipeg in 1904. A year later, the first of many "Ridna Shkola" organizations was founded at St. Nicholas parish, namely, a school for the teaching of all things Ukrainian. Alongside the
parishes, the Fathers encouraged the organization of "National Halls" to serve as meeting places and focal points of the Ukrainian community. Already in 1918, they had bought a building with the intention of setting up a boarding school, which came to fruition after WWII with the Institute of St. Basil for boys and Institute of St. Josaphat for girls in Edmonton.
In the summer of 1946, Fathers Sloboda, Kurylo, and Methodius Koziak, a Brother of Christian Schools, organized "Leadership Courses," initially in Saskatoon, and in Edmonton from 1950. In 1952, at Pigeon Lake, Camp St. Basil came into existence, where children have been enjoying summer courses since 1953.
Father Kryzhanowski was especially active in counteracting any feelings of
inferiority among Ukrainians. He often intervened when he saw them being taken
advantage of because they didn't know local customs or practices. He was a
strong promoter of higher education for the young people. Father Diakovych,
a brilliant preacher, spared no effort in making Ukrainians aware of their
national identity (not Russian, nor Austrian). In like vein Fathers. Truch, Bodnar
and Jean (of French Canadian origin) contributed mightily. Fr Jean, especially,
deserves recognition for, among other things, being the representative of
the Ukrainian government at peace talks in Paris in 1919, and for the existence
of the Basilian Fathers museum in Mundare.
In the fostering of music, Fathers. Truch, Dobko, Sloboda, Kurylo, and Malowany deserve honourable mention. Nor can we ignore the historical contributions of Fathers Romanovych, Nazarko, Solovey, and Kupranec.
The Printed Word
Many early Ukrainian immigrants were illiterate, but they valued literacy and many were subscribers to "Misionar," a monthly publication of the Basilian Fathers in Ukraine since 1897. A Ukrainian newspaper, Svoboda, found its way here from the U. S., even though it could not do justice to the local needs. Father Filas, the first Superior of the Basilian Mission in Canada, had been the first editor of the monthly "Misionar" in Ukraine. He laid the foundation for the publication, in 1911, of the Canadian Rusin. In 1918, the name was changed to Canadian Ukrainian. (Rusin is the adjective from Rus', the ancient name for the State with Kyiv as its capital; not to be confused with Russian, which is the adjective from Russia, a name imposed on Muscovy by Tsar Peter I in the 18th century.)
In the 1930's, the Basilians set up a printing press in Mundare, and eventually, in 1939, the monthly SVITLO began publication, along with yearly Almanacs. Father Popovych began the Library of Good Books. Svitlo and the Press moved to Toronto in 1949. BEACON, an English language version, began publication in 1966. Of the books, probably the most popular
was a four volume edition of Lives of the Saints by Father Trukh.
From humble beginnings, Basilian priests and lay-brothers, and students on their way to the priesthood, toiled under circumstances both pleasant and difficult, to maintain the faith of Jesus Christ among Ukrainians, and to spread it to unbelievers of various linguistic abilities. Entwined with the cultural demands of Ukrainians from the very beginning, the Basilian Fathers were able to give back to the Motherland, Ukraine, in monetary assistance, what they received in the early days from the blood, sweat and tears of the early missionaries. May we all follow their example of selfless devotion to our faith, whatever the cost.